Weapon

Tool used to cause damage (physical or mental)

Types of weapons

Personal weapon (or small arms)
- designed to be used by a single person.

Hunting weapon
- primarily for hunting game animals for food or sport

Infantry support weapon
- larger than personal weapons, requiring two or more people to operate correctly.

Fortification weapon
- mounted in a permanent installation, or used primarily within a fortification. Usually high caliber.

Mountain weapon
- use by mountain forces or those operating in difficult terrain. This includes modifications of existing weapons for paratroopers.

Vehicle weapon
- mounted on any type of combat vehicle.

Railway weapon
- designed to be mounted on railway cars, including armored trains.

Aircraft weapon
- carried on and used by some type of aircraft, helicopter, or other aerial vehicle.

Naval weapon
- mounted on ships and submarines.

Space weapons
- designed to be used in or launched from space.

Weapon development

Wood

Types of wood and qualities

The term softwood is used to describe wood from conifers. It may also be used to describe these trees, which tend to be evergreen, notable exceptions being bald cypress and the larches. Hardwood contrasts with softwood (which comes from conifer trees). Hardwoods are not necessarily harder than softwoods. In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while yew is an example of a hard softwood. The hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood. There are about a hundred times as many hardwoods as softwoods.

White Oak
One of three common woods categories
Quercus alba, the white oak, is one of the pre-eminent hardwoods of eastern North America.
- Solid shorter weapons wood (nunchaku or tonfa), not heavy weapons (Ieku)
White Oak breaks into jagged pieces.

Red Oak
Second of three common woods categories
Quercus rubra, commonly called northern red oak or champion oak, (syn. Quercus borealis), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). It is a native of North America, in the northeastern United States and southeast Canada.
Similar to White Oak
- heavier and more resistant to impact
- one of two Shureido woods (official Imperial supplier of kobudo weapons)

Cedar and pine
Third of three common woods categories
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar, Red Cedar, Eastern Juniper, Red Juniper, Pencil Cedar) is a species of juniper native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Great Plains. Further west, it is replaced by the related Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper), and to the southwest, by Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper). The Lakota Native American name is Chansha, "redwood" or Hante'. In its native range, it is commonly called "cedar" or "red cedar". Southern Yellow Pine (often abbreviated SYP) doesn't refer to any one species of tree, but rather a group of species which are classified as yellow pine (as opposed to white pine)and include Loblolly, Longleaf, Shortleaf, and Slash pines
- wide-grained, light wood.
- light practice weapons

STAY AWAY FROM CEDAR AND PINE FOR CONTACT WEAPONS
- Rigid but weak and snaps; breaks into large, sharp pieces (severe piercing injuries)

Wax wood
Ligustrum lucidum (Glossy Privet, Chinese Privet or Broad-leaf Privet)] is a species of privet native to the southern half of China.
- Opposite of Cedar
White Wax Wood is the wood of Ligustrum lucidum (Glossy Privet, Chinese Privet or Broad-leaf Privet), which has been prized in China for thousands of years. It is considered one of the best materials from which to fashion staffs, spear shafts, and walking sticks, because it is tough, hard and flexible and can absorb shock without breaking. However, a disadvantage of white waxwood is that it is very vulnerable to wood worm. This can be treated if found early enough with various powders and oils
- light beautiful, tight-grain, white wood
- good for contact application (will not splinter)
- breaks totally and NOT into such sharp points
- warp quickly

Ebony
Ebony is any very dense black wood, most commonly yielded by several species in the genus Diospyros, but may also refer to other heavy, black (or dark colored) woods from unrelated species. Ebony has a very high density and will sink in water. Its fine texture, and very smooth finish when polished, have made it very valuable as an ornamental wood. Species of ebony include Diospyros ebenum (Ceylon ebony), native to southern India and Sri Lanka; Diospyros crassiflora (Gaboon ebony), native to western Africa; and Diospyros celebica (Macassar ebony), native to Indonesia and prized for its luxuriant, multi-colored wood grain. The Mauritius ebony, Diospyros tesselaria, was largely exploited by the Dutch in the 17th century.
- heavier tight-grain wood (African Ebony is heavier than Asian Ebony)
- coffee brown to a deep black
- resistant to impact.

Japanese Beech tree (Shijiya)
Fagus crenata, known as the Japanese beech, Siebold's beech, or buna, is a deciduous tree of the beech family Fagaceae. It is native to Japan where it is widespread and often one of the dominant trees of Japan's deciduous forests
- one of two Shureido woods (official Imperial supplier of kobudo weapons)

Ash
Fraxinus is a genus flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45-65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The tree's common English name, ash, goes back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. Both words also meant "spear" in their respective languages.
- Similar to the Oak
- moderately hard wood
- brakes into sharp points

Ironwoods (Bocote, Cocobola)
Ironwood is a common name for a large number of woods that have a reputation for hardness. Ostrya virginiana (American Hophornbeam), is a species of Ostrya native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Manitoba and eastern Wyoming, southeast to northern Florida and southwest to eastern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Other names include eastern hophornbeam, hardhack (in New England), ironwood, and leverwood. Olneya tesota is a perennial flowering tree of the Fabaceae family, legumes (peas, beans, etc), which is commonly known as Ironwood or Desert Ironwood. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Olneya. This tree is part of the western Sonoran Desert complex in the Southwestern United States, which includes flora such as palo verde, saguaro, ocotillo, brittlebush, creosote bush, and mesquite. Due to its considerable hardness, processing desert ironwood is difficult. Metal-working type tools such as a chainsaw are often required. Final treatment of the wood with solutions can also be difficult because of its high density.
- extremely heavy pretty hard wood (about three times as hard as Ash or Oak)
- breaks into multi-short points

Purpleheart
Peltogyne, known as Purpleheart, is a genus of 23 species of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, native to tropical regions of Central and South America, where they occur in tropical rainforests. The trees are prized for their beautiful heartwood which, when cut, quickly turns from a dark brown to a rich purple color. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light darkens the wood to a brown color with a slight hue of the original purple. This effect can be minimized with a finish containing a UV inhibitor. The dry wood is very hard and dense with a specific gravity of 0.86 (54 lb/ft^3 or 860 kg/m^3). This wood is quite dense, and if it is to be worked, then a sharp carbide blade is required to cut it.
- beautiful wood (deep color with purple sheen)
- decent wood

Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. Bamboo is used in several East Asian and South Asian martial arts. Bambusa vulgaris, also known as Bambu Ampel (Indonesian), Buloh Aur, Buloh Pau, Buloh Minyak, Aur Beting (Malay), Mai-Luang, Phai-Luang (Thai), Daisan-Chiku (Japanese), Murangi (Kikiyu), Gemeiner Bambus (German), Bambou de Chine (French), Bambu Vulgar (Portuguese) , Mwanzi (Swahili), Common Bamboo, Golden Bamboo or Buddha’s Belly Bamboo, is an open clump type bamboo species with lemon yellow culms in green stripes and dark green leaves. Its densely tufted culms grow 10-20 meters long and 4-10 centimeters thick. It is one of largest species of bamboo, and is the most easily recognized species as well. In the ancient Tamil martial art of Silambam, fighters would hit each other rapidly with bamboo sticks. In the Japanese martial art Kendo, bamboo is used to make the Shinai sword. A bamboo stick can be made into a simple spear by sharpening one of the ends. Archery longbow and recurve bow limbs are commonly crafted with flat ground bamboo, and make superior weapons for bowhunting and target archery.
- large, fast-growing cane plant
- primary strengths : speed of growth (cheaper), flexibility, and weight.
- breaks via splits

Composite Bamboo
- shinai material
- Strips of bamboo are tied together, reinforcing the weapon
- Can bend at a 45 degree angle with no damage

Pressed Bamboo
- Bamboo particle board
- primary advantage : minimal environment impact

Rattan
Rattan is the name for the roughly 600 species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australasia. Rattans are extensively used for making furniture and baskets. When cut into sections, rattan can be used as wood to make furniture. Rattan accepts paints and stains like many other kinds of wood, so it is available in many colours; and it can be worked into many styles. Moreover, the inner core can be separated and worked into wicker. Due to its durability and resistance to splintering, sections of rattan can be used as staves or canes for martial arts – 70 cm.-long rattan sticks, called baston, are used in Filipino martial arts, especially Modern Arnis and Eskrima.
- A fast-growing light and durable plant
- weakness : strong impact collapse skinned material (only work with whole lengths)
- shaped using consistent pressure (mock weapons use)

Stone

Types of stone and qualities

Chert
- flint, agate, and chalcedony
The term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone formations. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists), the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality - chert being lower quality than flint. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Flint was used for the manufacture of flint tools during the Stone Age as it splits into thin, sharp splinters called flakes or blades (depending on the shape) when struck by another hard object (such as a hammerstone made of another material). This process is referred to as knapping. Agate is one of the most common materials used in the art of hardstone carving, and has been recovered at a number of ancient sites. Chalcedony occurs in a wide range of varieties. Many semi-precious gemstones are in fact forms of chalcedony. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite.
- form of quartz
- exceedingly fine grain

Obsidian
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Because of this lack of crystal structure, obsidian blade edges can reach almost molecular thinness, leading to its ancient use as projectile points and blades, and its modern use as surgical scalpel blades.
- high-silica lava
- best knapping stone

Metalworking

Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a metal from its ore. This includes iron extraction from iron ore, and copper extraction and other base metals from their ores.

Copper
The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record. It has a history of use that is at least 10,000 years old, and estimates of its discovery place it at 9000 BC in the Middle East; a copper pendant was found in northern Iraq that dates to 8700 BC. There is evidence that gold and iron were the only metals used by humans before copper. Most copper is mined or extracted as copper sulfides from large open pit mines in porphyry copper deposits that contain 0.4 to 1.0% copper. Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component. They have high resistance against corrosion. The best known traditional types are bronze, where tin is a significant addition, and brass, using zinc instead. Both these are imprecise terms, and today the term copper alloy tends to be substituted.
- Mohs hardness : 3.0

Bronze
Alloying of copper with zinc or tin to make brass and bronze was practiced soon after the discovery of copper. Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal.

Iron and steel
Iron metal has been used since ancient times, though lower-melting copper alloys were used first in history. Pure iron is soft (softer than aluminium), but is unobtainable by smelting. The material is significantly hardenened and strengthened by impurities from the smelting process, such as carbon. A certain proportion of carbon (between 0.2% and 2.1%) produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to cast iron. Further refinement with oxygen reduces the carbon content to make steel. Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel in a crucible. Its manufacture is essentially a refining process which is dependent on preexisting furnace products. Crucible steel has aroused considerable interest for well over a thousand years and there is a sizable body of work concerning its nature and production. Steels and low carbon iron alloys with other metals (alloy steels) are by far the most common metals in industrial use, due to their great range of desirable properties.

Crucible steels remained the world's best, although very expensive, for some time. The introduction of the Bessemer process and other steelmaking processes gradually replaced it, being able to produce steel of similar (or better) quality on a much larger scale more quickly and cheaply. The Bessemer process and more modern methods differ from crucible steel production in that they remove carbon from the pig iron, but stop before all the carbon is removed, whereas the ultimate raw material for tradition crucible steel was wrought iron, to which carbon had been added by deposition of dissolved mineral components in the interstices of sediments (cementation). Alloy steel is steel alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts of between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low alloy steels and high alloy steels. The difference between the two is somewhat arbitrary: Smith and Hashemi define the difference at 4.0%, while others define it at 8.0 %. Most commonly, the phrase "alloy steel" refers to "low alloy" steels.

Gunpowder

Gunpowder is known since the late 19th century as black powder. The invention of this destructive composition is usually attributed to a German monk, Bartholdus Schwartz, about the year 1320. It is said to have been first used by the Venetians in the war against the Genoese, in the year 1380. There is, however, considerable obscurity respecting the date of its invention; and Roger, commonly known as Friar Bacon, makes express mention of it in his treatise, " De Nullitate Magice," published at Oxford in 1216.1

Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older gunpowder (black powder) which they replaced.

Black powder mixture
A composition of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, mixed together and granulated; to which fire being applied, it expands and propels with great power. The proportion of ingredients for making Gunpowder in England, is 75 parts nitre (saltpetre), 15 charcoal, and 10 sulphur; in the whole, 100. On the continent these proportions are somewhat varied.

Granular mixture

  • sulfur (S) : fuel, lowers ignition temperature, increases combustion rate
  • charcoal (C) :carbon and other fuel for the reaction (simplified as carbon))
  • potassium nitrate (KNO3) : supplies oxygen for the reaction

Gunpowder can be made just using potassium nitrate and charcoal (or alternatively without charcoal), but without the sulfur (or coal), the powder is not as strong.

Function (principle of operation)

Low-tech

Mêlée weapons
any carried weapon that does not involve a projectile
user and target of the weapon are in contact with it simultaneously in use

Primitive weapons
Hand (Fist)
Sticks
Staves
Fans
Blowgun / Fukiya
Hand axe (Hand stones)
Millwall brick

two-handed%20sword.png sword.png
Bladed
edged weapon (edge or point)
concentrating force onto small surface area (pressure penetration)

Smiths / metalworker construction (bladesmiths / swordsmiths)
- involves variety of materials, tools, and techniques
- key criteria
— hardness
— strength
— flexibility
— balance

Shortswords
- Straight Shortswords
- Curved Shortswords

Swords
- Curved one-handed swords
- Straight one-handed swords
- Curved two-handed swords
- Hand-and-a-Half and Two-handed Greatswords
- Axe-like swords

Knives
- Daggers
- Axe knives

Picks and axes
- Pickaxes

Polearms
- Spears
- Axe-polearms
- Spike and hammer polearms

Blunt weapons
Trauma weapons
mass and raw impact energy (broken bones, internal trauma or concussion)
heavier than edged weapons (strenuous to wield and difficult to maneuver)

Clubs and chain weapons
Maces
Flails
Meteor hammers (Surujin)
Nunchuck

Ranged weapons
Projectile point (spearhead / needle)
Spears and Javelins
Throwing Sticks
Throwing Blades
Throwing Darts
Throwing Axes
Sling (shepherd's sling)
Slingshot

Archery weapons
Projectile point (arrow)
Bows
- Longbows
- Recurved Bows
- Short Bows
- Reflex Bows
Crossbows

Other weapons
Incendiary weapons
Composite projectile weapons
Improvised weapons
Flexible weapons
- Sectional
- Composite
Shields

Mid-tech

  • Artillery / heavy projectiles
  • Explosive weapons (blast concussion or shrapnel)
  • Firearms
  • Incendiary weapons
  • Missiles / rockets (projectile weapons)

High-tech

Biological weapons

- biological agents
- disease
- infection

Chemical weapons

- chemical poisoning
- chemical reactions

Electronic / Energy

Electromagnetic / Electrostatic / Electromotive weapons

Energy emitters - transmitters

Non-lethal or lethal Directed-Energy Weapons (DEWs)
"Rayguns"

Electromagnetic radiation types
— High-energy radio-frequency (HERF)
— Lasers / electrolaser / masers
— High and low power, pulsed microwave (HPM / LPM)
— High-energy infrared frequency / "Heat rays"
— Pulsed Energy Projectile (PEP)

Active Denial Systems (ADS)
- non-lethal, directed-energy weapon
- millimeter-wave transmitter
- crowd control (primary; "goodbye effect")
- disable vehicles

Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio (MEDUSA)
- directional, non-lethal weapon
- crowd control (microwave auditory effect)

Magnetic weapon

Magnetic projectiles propulsion (Coil-gun / Rail-gun / EM catapult / EM Mass driver )
Electromagnetic pulse (radioflash)
Explosively pumped flux compression generator

Electrostatic

Particle beam weapon (focus particle beams)
Plasma weapons
Electric vacuum beam

Sonic weapons

Sound to injure, incapacitate, or kill opponent

Infrasonic weapons (ISW)
Acoustic weapons (ASW)
Ultrasonic weapons (USW)

Types
- sound fields
- sound beams

Nuclear weapons

Nuclear bomb
- radioactive material
- nuclear fission and/or nuclear fusion

Strategic nuclear weapons (missile warheads)
- Fusion warheads
- Fission warheads
- Hybrid warheads
— Neutron warheads
— Enhanced radiation warheads

Tactical nuclear weapons (battlefield munitions)
- Atomic Demolition Munition (ADM)
— Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM)
— Medium Atomic Demolition Munition (MADM)
— Tactical Atomic Demolition Munition (TADM)
- Nuclear artillery shells
- Suitcase nukes (two-man portable / truck-portable)
- Davy Crockett recoilless rifle
- Dirty bombs
- Salted Bomb
- Depleted Uranium Munition (DUM) [Q-metal; depletalloy]

Antimatter weapons

- theoretical

Other Tech

Spring-guns

Man-traps
- Trapping pits
- Snares
- Trap netting
- Trapping pits
- Fluid solid-matter trap
- Cage traps

Booby traps
- Punji stick (Punji stake)

Suicide weapons

Special attack infantry / Suicide personnel
- Suicide bomber
- Suicide swimmer
- Fukuryu underwater diver
- Kamikaze pilot

Suicide attacks
- guns and explosives
- bomb body (hidden inside)
- explosive belt / explosive vest / satchel charge
- vehicle bomb (bicycle, jet, plane, car, truck, semi-trailer truck, bus)

Suicide tech
- Kamikaze plane
— Ohka rocket-plane
— Mizuno Shinryu rocket-plane
— Tsurugi aircraft
— Kawanishi Baika pulsejet
- Shinyo boats
- Kairyu submarine
- Kaiten torpedo

Trojan weapons

Weapon stratagem
- Draw in opponents by offering value of weapon, but following acceptance, the opponent is caused damage

See Also

Eternal articles

Books

Websites

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