Science is the systematic knowledge-base method and prescriptive practice that is capable of resulting in information. Science discovers and increases human knowledge and understanding through research. Science is a continuing effort to discover and increase human knowledge and understanding through disciplined research.
Do not supposed that science for a moment denies the existence of some of the problems which have hitherto been classed as philosophical or metaphysical. Science asserts that the methods hitherto applied to these problems have been futile, because they have been unscientific. The classifications of facts hitherto made by the system-mongers have been hopelessly inadequate or hopelessly prejudiced. Until the scientific study of psychology, both by observation and experiment, has advanced immensely beyond its present limits—and this may take generations of work—science can only answer to the great majority of "metaphysical" problems, "I am ignorant." Meanwhile it is idle to be impatient or to indulge in system-making. The cautious and laborious classification of facts must have proceeded much further than at present before the time will be ripe for drawing conclusions. Science as a system acquires knowledge based on scholarly methods, and to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research.
Experimental science, scholarly research, and applied science are interconnected. Scholarly methods and scholarship are a body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.
- Scholasticism is a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning; it can help answer questions or resolve contradictions.
- Historical methods comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians to research and write history. History guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, require external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis.
- Empirical methods collect data to form a theory or make conclusions. Experimental method investigates causal relationships among variables. An experiment can be used to help solve problems and test theoretical assumptions.
- Scientific methods are techniques for researching phenomena and integrating previous knowledge. Controlled methods collect observable evidence of natural or social phenomena, record measurable data relating to the observations, and analyze this information to construct theoretical explanations of how things work.
Scholars are expected to publish their information so other scholars can do similar methods to verify the information. The results of this process enable better understanding of the information, and better ability to use the information. Those who can devote persistently some four or five hours a week to the conscientious study of any one limited branch of science will achieve in the space of a year or two a scientific habit of mind. The busy layman is not bound to seek about for some branch which will give him useful facts for his profession or occupation in life. It does not indeed matter for the purpose now in view whether one seeks to make himself proficient in geology, or biology, or geometry, or mechanics, or even history or folklore, if these be studied scientifically.