Programming and coding, formally called computer programming, is writing, testing, debugging, troubleshooting, and maintaining the code of a machine. Programming creates a program that has specific behavior that the designer sets forth (and this is called "customization"). Code is written in a computer language. A computer language is an artificial language and allows a set of instructions for organizing or processing to be performed by a computer. The coding process requires knowledge in various subjects, such as algorithms and formal logic.

Programming languages

A programming language is a subset of computer languages. Programming languages are used to create programs which control computer operations and are written in specifications of syntax ("form") and semantics ("meaning"). In a sense, the methods to control machines such as the Jacquard loom and player piano were composed of programing languages but this is not what is meant in the modern sense of the term. Programming languages are referenced to a specification document, like an ISO Standard, or have a dominant implementation

Thousands of different programming languages exist. The following are a variety of more widely used languages:




Static semantics


Typed versus untyped
Static versus dynamic
Weak and strong

Execution semantics

Core library


Computer application(s)
Transforms source code into binary executable program
Transforms source code (source language)
Target language (object code)

Markup languages


Markup languages are computer languages, though not usually referred to as programming languages. Markup languages define structured data. Different markup languages exist. The following are a variety of more widely used languages:

Further reading

21st Century

20th Century

External articles



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