Employment is a contract between two entities, the employer (who, in commercial ventures, has the productive profit-generating activity) and the employee (who works in that enterprise). Employment is present in the private sector, the public sector, the non-profit sector and household sectors. The job activity performed is in exchange for payment, usually commiserate with one's occupation and work history. The duration of a job may range from short term, such as seasonal work, to a long term contract, such as a full time employee.

Steps to employment

Job Search

Main article : Job hunting

Job hunting is the act of looking for employment. The immediate goal of job hunting is get job interviews with an employer which lead to getting hired. The job hunter looks for employment opportunities. Two classes of people look for positions: those who already have one position, but are looking for a better one, and those who have no position and can devote their entire time to the search for a job. The latter class includes people who have left their previous positions for one reason or another before obtaining a new one and people who may be beginning work for the first time.

The period of job-seeking is one during which the young man is likely to become more discouraged than usual. This is natural, but not necessary nor logical. In the long run most positions for which you apply and which you fail to get are positions for which you are not really suited. If you were, in 75 per cent of the cases you would have connected. This is the light in which failures should be regarded. They should not be regarded as evidence of your incapacity for any job, but merely your unfitness for that particular one.

Nevertheless, it is desirable to finish up this temporary business in the shortest possible time. Financial reasons may necessitate the temporary acceptance of a stop-gap job in lieu of any that is really satisfactory. In such cases the search should be continued during your spare time. Suppose, however, that one can afford to look until the right job is found; how long, on the average, should it take to land the right job?

This question is sure to arise, and it is difficult to answer. In a very general way two weeks might be set as a lower limit and six weeks as the upper. It is possible, of course, by a stroke of good luck, to decrease the lower limit considerably. Usually, however, time must be allowed for writing letters, for receiving replies, for making appointments, and for consummating interviews. On this basis two weeks is a reasonable minimum. The maximum will vary, but if the methods outlined in job hunting are vigorously and continuously applied, results should be obtained within six weeks. The writer hesitates to set this maximum, however, for even if some weeks more are necessary there may be no reason to be discouraged.

The person who already is in one position but who is looking for another should go about his task in the same manner as described in job hunting, adapting the "self-organization" to business hours. The job hujnter will have to organize evenings and possibly the early hours of the mornings in a way similar to that in which the other job seeker organizes thier entire day.

The person who is already employed will probably be longer, on the average, in locating a new position, since the job seeker has less time and energy to devote to the task. Yet an individual can apply exactly the same principles and obtain the same results.

Even more will-power is likely to be necessary in cases of this kind. The fact that a salary is being drawn from the present position removes some of the acute financial urge and renders procrastination and casual effort more enticing than ever. If you have decided definitely to get a new job and wish to obtain it within a comparatively short time, you will have to work conscientiously some three or four hours a day outside of your regular business hours for several weeks.

In any case, do not allow yourself to become discouraged; that is fatal. Enthusiasm, confidence, vigor, vim, determination are essential to ultimate success, and these are not the children of discouragement. Continuous effort, freshness of mind in acting and writing, and intelligent utilization of your time are essential. Much depends upon this. A hap-hazard, lackadaisical, intermittent application of the best efforts is likely to result in dismal failure. Whether you can devote your entire day or only a part of it to seeking a job, utilize your time in a systematic, orderly, and consistent way.

Research the employers

Company info
These sites may help you in retrieving information on companies and businesses.

Look up basic information about an employer first before applying the organization's positions. Basic information should include:

  • Full name,
  • Address / location,
  • Business description,
  • Year established,
  • Web site,

Other relevant information should include:

  • Revenues,
  • Number of employees,
  • Stock price (if public),
  • Chief executive officer,
  • Products / services,
  • Competitors,
  • Advantages, and
  • Disadvantage


Hand out resumes or Curriculum Vitae to prospective employers. Look at the various newspaper advertisement for job opportunities. Cold call companies inquiring to whether there are any job vacancies. Also, emailing companies to ascertain if there are employment opportunities. Once an opportunity is found, apply for the job through the company's website, emailing or mailing in a copy of your resume to the prospective employer.

Prepare in advance and work the area you are applying at. Research the companies that are in the area that you are applying in and focus on three to five employers. Try to get a lot of information on these employers. An additional three employers can be lightly researched. Have a good idea on the job openings posted on their web site.

Bring your resume. Have a pen with you. Know what days and hours you can work. Bring full contact information, including your address, your email address and your phone number. Bring your educational information (e.g., schools attended, dates attended, grade point average). Keep a list of names, addresses, supervisor's name and dates of previous employment. Have names and contact information for your references. Dress neatly. Be perpared to be interviewed on the spot.

Be confident and articulate. Make eye contact, have a firm handshake, and, in a few sentences, state your qualifications. State your matching skills and experience to the company. Be able to tell who you are, what is your major qualifications and what are your experiences.

Do not ask "Can you tell me about your company?" nor "What job openings do you have?" This indicates that there was no research about the company. Research will save your time and show the employer that you are efficient. Understand how you are able to help the company and how your skills and experiences are congruent with the openings at the company. Be brief in talking, try to have it under 60 seconds. Ask for the employer's name (or the name of the person that handles hiring), you can later apply to that person by name.

Get their business card, and a company brochure, and ask the employer how to follow-up. Keep a portfolio folder with you. A portfolio folder can contain you resumes and help gather brochures, business cards and information handouts. Ask if you can follow-up by phone or by email. For the matching open jobs and your skills, follow up and show interest in the fact that you are being considered for the position.

The resume

Resumes should be brief, organized, concise, and targeted to the position being sought. Include a portfolios of previous work if available. State past accomplishments which are put forth as plainly as possible (e.g. use numbers to describe achievements and responsibilities or practically describe the level of a skill and ability). For particularly employers, if researched in advance and if there are known openings you are qualified for, make tailor version of the resume for these jobs.

There will always be a temptation to use the same wording or phrasing as in the first letters you have written, because that phrasing can be copied and extra mental effort avoided. Do not yield to that temptation; yielding may be fatal. The whole matter of how to write a letter for employment is discussed in Resumes. It is sufficient here to emphasize the necessity for allowing the full amount of time necessary to do a good job. If this is done, it is likely that the greater part of every morning will be spent at your desk. Start there at any rate, and stay until you have finished.

Organize the resumes and cover letters into folders to be taken along in the job search. Print plenty of resumes, 25 copies of the general resume is a good suggestion, and keep them with you. Hand out resumes to prospective employers. Hand them to other job seekers that you may meet and network with.


If selected as a potential employee, you will be interviewed. An interview may occur in several rounds until the interviewer selects an applicant for the job.

Further reading

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