"Unless the kettle boiling be, filling the tea pot spoils the tea." — Anonymous


Food and Water

- any plant or animal substance consumed to provide nutritional support
- contains essential nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals)
- produce energy, maintain life, and/or stimulate growth

Potable water (Drinking water)
- sufficiently high quality H2O
- consumed/used with low risk of immediate or long term harm

Making a meal

Cooking is the activity of making food with heat.

"To be a good cook means the knowledge of all fruits, kerbs, balms and spices, and of all that is healing and meet in fields and grove, savory in meat. It means carefulness, inventiveness, watchfulness, willingness and readiness of appliance. It means the economy of your great-grandmother and the science of modern chemists; it means much tasting and no wasting; it means English thoroughness, French art and Arabian hospitality; it means in fine that you are to be perfectly and always ladies, and you are to see that everybody has something nice to eat."— Ruskin

Cooking by direct application of heat: Broiling. Roasting.
Cooking by means of heated air: Baking.
Cooking by direct application of hot water: Boiling. Stewing.
Cooking by direct contact with steam: Steaming.
Cooking by indirect contact with boiling water: Double Boiler.
Heat applied by means of hot fat: Frying. Sauteing.
Heat applied by means of a heated metal: Pan Broiling.
A combination of stewing and baking results in: Braising.
A combination of frying and stewing results in: Fricasseeing.



  • 3 teaspoonfuls make 1 tablespoonful
  • 2 cups make 1 pint
  • 4 cups or 2 pints make 1 quart


  • 2 teaspoonfuls of dry ingredients = 1 tablespoonful
  • 4 teaspoonfuls of liquid = 1 tablespoonful
  • 4 tablespoonfuls of liquid = 1/2 gill, 1/4 cup or 1 wineglassful
  • 1 tablespoonful of liquid = 1/2 ounce
  • 1 pint of liquid =1 pound
  • 2 gills of liquids = 1 cup or 1/2 pint
  • 1 kitchen cup = 1/2 pint
  • 1 heaping quart of sifted flour = 1 pound
  • 4 cups of flour = 1 quart or 1 pound
  • 1 rounded tablespoonful of flour = 1/2 ounce
  • 3 cups of cornmeal =1 pound
  • 1 1/2 pints of cornmeal = 1 pound
  • 1 cup of butter = 1/2 pound
  • 1 pint of butter = 1 pound
  • 2 tablespoonful of butter =1 ounce
  • Butter the size of an egg =2 ounces
  • Butter the size of a walnut =1 ounce
  • 1 solid pint of chopped meat = 1 pound
  • 10 eggs = 1 pound
  • A dash of pepper = 1/8 teaspoonful, or 3 good shakes
  • 2 cups of granulated sugar = 1 pound
  • 1 pint of granulated sugar = 1 pound
  • 1 pint of brown sugar =13 ounces
  • 2 cups of powdered sugar = 1 pound
  • An ordinary tumbler = 1/2 pint
  • 2 tablespoonfuls =1 fluid ounce
  • 4 tablespoonfuls of flour = 1 ounce
  • 1 cup of flour = 1/4 pound
  • 4 cups of flour = 1 pound
  • 1 cup of milk or water= 1/2 pound
  • 1/2 cup of butter (solidly packed) = 1/4 pound
  • 1 cup of butter (solidly packed) = 1/2 pound
  • 1 cup of granulated sugar = 1/2 pound
  • 1 cup of chopped meat (solidly packed) = 1/2 pound
  • 5 eggs without shells = 1/2 pound
  • 4 eggs with shells = 1/2 pound



One of the most important things about making good coffee is the care of the coffee pot. Coffee should never be used after it has stood on the grounds for an hour or more. Always make just enough for the meal and afterwards empty the pot, wash, dry and leave open to air until next used. If any coffee is left over, however, it may be kept good by draining from the grounds and keeping it in a covered vessel. It may then be used cold or reheated. Cold coffee is very refreshing in hot weather.

  • 1 tablespoonful of coffee for each person and 1 for the pot
  • 1 cup of boiling water for each person and 1 for the pot

Put the coffee into the coffee pot, mix with cold water into a wet paste.
Pour on the boiling water and boil for five minutes slowly.

To make COFFEE WITH AN EGG, break an egg and mix it, shell and all, with the paste, and make as above.


  • 1 teaspoonful of tea for a person, and
  • 1 for the pot 1 cupful of boiling water, and 1 for the pot

Let it steep for three minutes.

About 4 cups

  • 1 quart of milk
  • 2 teaspoonsful of cocoa

Heat milk. Mix the cocoa and a little of the warm milk to let it melt, and then mix all together, keeping it on a slow fire.


  • 2 cup of oatmeal (Quaker Oats)
  • 1 quart of hot water.
  • A pinch of salt Boil fifteen minutes.

Many of these recipes are given for three persons. For a smaller or larger number decrease or increase ingredients in proper proportion.




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